This project will evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of electrical vehicles used in fleet operations. The project will evaluate present usage through case studies. The results will be used to evaluate other vehicle applications and to determine how EV fleet adoptions could impact overall rates of market penetration and what are the programs or incentives that could encourage EV fleets.
This project evaluated the implementation and effectiveness of electrical vehicles used in fleet operations by examining polices and using case studies. Evaluations included the use of EVs in existing fleet operations with considerations for light, medium and heavy vehicles used in civilian, commercial, local government and military applications. Policy recommendations and regulations were also reviewed. The results can be used to evaluate other vehicle applications and to determine how EV fleet adoptions could impact overall rates of EV market penetration and what are the programs or incentives that could encourage EV fleets.
According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, there are more that 11 million fleet cars and trucks in the United States.
Fleet vehicles regularly cover predictable routes and often return to central depots at night, thus, they have a centralized recharging location which makes them excellent candidates for conversion to electric. EVs are particularly attractive for light-duty fleet use because of their reduced fueling expense and lower overall maintenance cost. Combining reduced operating cost with the attractive financing and leasing options offered can provide a compelling justification for governmental and other fleet owners to switch from conventionally fuel vehicles to EVs.
Significant momentum may be developing for the conversion of the nation’s governmental vehicle fleets to electric drive. President Obama’s Memorandum of March 2015, directing the federal government to increase its purchasing of zero-emission vehicles has elevated the potential for EVs. The order requires 50% of the federal fleet of over 655,000 vehicles to be battery-electric or hydrogen vehicles by 2025. Additionally, the U.S. Postal Service’s (USPS) issuance of an RFI in February of 2015 has initiated the process of selecting a next-generation delivery vehicle. The USPS plans to replace the majority of its fleet of more than 200,000 vehicles, which includes 180,000 light-duty carrier route vehicles. USPS is also the first government agency to public report its GHG emissions and to receive third-party verification of the results.
There are several federal regulatory requirements that play an important role in fleet management, most notably the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, the Clean Air Act (CAA) and the Energy Policy Act (EPAct). Compliance with these requirements is varied and is based on the particular application and use. CAFE standards are the NHTSA fuel efficiency goals that auto manufacturers have agreed to meet. The standards are established to reduce petroleum use, lower GHGs and save the public money. Smog and other pollution prompted Congress to establish the Clean Air Act in 1970. The Act, which was last amended in 1990, requires the EPA establish and enforce air quality standards. The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 called on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to expand research and development in the transportation sector and to create programs for accelerating the introduction of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) to replace conventional models fueled by petroleum (gasoline and diesel).
Two case studies that are very relevant to the EVTC project are:
Commercial case studies include:
In addition to case studies, there are tools available to help fleet operators analyze differing fleet vehicle types as follows.
EVTC staff contributed a podium presentation, “Electric Fleet Implications and Analysis” at the 2016 UTC Conference for the Southeast Region in Knoxville, Tennessee in March of 2016.
A report on the implementation, use and effectiveness of electric vehicles in fleet operations has evaluated EV usage for classes of vehicles from Class 1 motorcycles to Class 8 semi-trucks. Case studies include the use of electric motorcycles by police departments, EVs in ride-sharing and as taxis and city use of mass transit electric buses. The report also identifies the programs, incentives and legislative mandates that encourage the expansion of EV fleet use, and how these programs may increase overall rates of market penetration and encourage new applications. These results can be used to evaluate other fleet vehicle applications by appropriate users.
PI Contact Information:
Florida Solar Energy Center
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